The result of a mix of historical styles and classical building
plans that was taught at the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris
during the 19th century. The school and the style were very
influential in 19th and early 20th century North America.
Swags, medallions, flowers, balustrades, balconies, grand
stairways and other lavish features characterize this style,
reserved for grandiose public buildings and homes for the
home plans date back to historical New England. It is a style
which is timeless and has changed a little to suit the needs
of today's lifestyle. The Garrison Colonial, New England Colonial,
Dutch Colonial, Salt Box, Southern, and Modern Colonials are
just a few of the various Colonial styles. A Colonial home
can be described as any house where the second floor living
area is 100% of the first floor living area. More specifically
it is very symmetrical with a center (or slightly offset)
door with windows equally spaced on both sides. The roof ridge
runs parallel to the main road. Bedrooms are usually always
on the second floor. Newer versions of the Colonial are usually
2 story with a covered front porch, attached garage, and a
family room situated behind the garage. The second floor living
area frequently extends over all or part of the garage. They
almost always have grand columns along the front of the home.
The Craftsman style (1905-1930) is named for Gustav Stickley's
magazine The Craftsman. It is the architectural facet of the
Arts and Crafts movement of that period. It was a fundamental
tenet of Arts and Crafts advocates that form should follow
function; good design and hand craftsmanship should supplant
useless ornamentation and shoddy "industrial" workmanship.
Accordingly, Craftsman houses feature strong architectural
details (like rafters exposed at the eaves) and "natural"
materials: wood (stained, not painted), stone, ceramic and
clay tiles, hammered copper. Stickley published a book of
his designs in 1909, and encouraged readers to build their
own houses. Many surviving Craftsman houses are thus copies
or adaptations of designs developed by Stickley and his architects.
The Georgian style (1700-1780) is named for the English kings
of the 17th and 18th centuries (Georges I, II, III and IV).
The earliest Georgian houses in the U.S. were built during
the Colonial period, so it's considered a Colonial style.
Classical Georgian houses are characterized by having: (1)
their long axis parallel to the street; (2) a symmetrical
front facade with a central entry and usually two windows
on either side, echoed in two-story examples by a row of five
windows above; and (3) either a massive central chimney (most
common in the North) or a pair of chimneys, one at each end
of the house (most common in the South). Georgian-style houses
have been built in the U.S. for over 200 years, and are still
being build today.
The Greek Revival style (1825-1860) came into being as a result
of the first organized excavations of ancient buildings in
Greece. Greek Revival houses were designed to resemble classical
Greek temples. Accordingly, they were often built with a gable
end facing the street (a 90-degree rotation from earlier practice),
and feature a front facade that includes, below the low-slope
gabled roof, a deep entablature (representing a heavy stone
lintel) supported by classical columns. High-style examples
often incorporate full-height (e.g., two-story), free-standing
columns of classical Greek design supporting a portico. Vernacular
(builder-designed) houses are simpler, usually having pilasters
applied to the corners of the front facade, "supporting"
the characteristic deep entablature that tops the walls.
Refers to those early-19th-century architectural styles inspired
by the first scientific archaeological excavations of ancient
ruins (Pompeii and Herculaneum). The Early Classical Revival
style can be considered a transitional style between Renaissance
Classicism and Neoclassicism. Neoclassical styles exhibit
less symmetry and greater variety in the design of columns
and other "classical" elements.
The Queen Anne style of house named (unaccountably) for the
English monarch of the 18th century is often referred to as
"Victorian," since it dates from the reign of Queen
Victoria (1837-1901). The Queen Anne house is characterized
by elaborateness and asymmetry, both inside and out. Exteriors
feature bay and oriel windows, ornamental brackets, siding
a mixture of clapboards and wooden shingles applied in fancy
patterns, elaborate porches, and turrets of various designs.
Interiors tend to have many rooms of varying size and shape,
and a lot of dark wood. It's not unusual to find houses of
earlier styles that have been "updated" to superficially
resemble Queen Anne houses by the addition of turrets, porches,
cabin or similar)
Timber-Frame houses, using building techniques thousands of
years old, began appearing in the colonies during the 1600s.
The homes are now found in rural or mountainous areas far
from the cities. Noted for their exposed timbers creating
an open woody feeling, and their handcrafted mortise and tenon
joinery, Timber-Frame and Post-and-Beam structures make ideal
vacation homes, lodges, and artists' studios. These buildings
provide great amounts of open spaces and light, making layouts
and floor plans limited only by one's wants and needs.
Shingle Style houses (1880-1900) originated in the upper-class
summer resort communities of New England. These large examples
are rambling, asymmetrical structures with various gables,
porches, towers, etc.; all covered with wooden shingles. John
Calvin Stevens of Portland, Maine and the firm of McKim, Mead
and White of New York City were prominent designers of Shingle
Style houses. Bob Vila's Cambridge house, the restoration
and remodeling of which was shown on his TV show last year,
is a classic Shingle Style house.
This term describes an architectural style or design of house
derived primarily from popular taste. Vernacular styles usually
stem from some more formal or academic style, with simplifications
and adaptations; but their origins are still recognizable.
Vernacular Georgian, Federal and Greek Revival houses are
common in New England.
When Queen Victoria ascended to the throne of England in the
1830s, new style houses began replacing the Saltbox, Cape
Cod, Georgian and Federal homes built in America by the English
Colonists from the mid-1600s through the early 1800s. The
Victorian architectural period, which predominated for about
75 years, ended with Queen Victoria's demise in 1901. During
that period, a number of different styles emerged, as architects,
tired of the restrained and boring characteristics of architecture
based on classic Roman and Greek buildings, sought to express
their creativity. The public's taste for fanciful structures,
led architects to create houses that fed people's fascination
with the romance of the medieval past.
Revival, recognizable by its pointed arched windows,
was the first of the Picturesque styles noted for its mythical
Italianate style, with its richly decorative detailing,
was a reflection of country villas of northern Italy and was
also part of the Picturesque Movement.
1860, one of the two styles to define Victorian residences
emerged. For about 25 years, through 1885, the colorful and
unrestrained Stick Style, reflected the public's
demand never to leave a wall unadorned.
evolving, Victorian home designs led, finally, to the one
style that is considered more truly American than its predecessors.
In 1880, the Queen Anne, perhaps the most
ornate and boldly colored style of the Victorian period, and
the last, began appearing, dominating Victorian residential
architecture through the early 1900s.